ПРЕДЕЊЕТО И ПРЕДИЛКИТЕ ВО БАЛКАНСКИТЕ НАРОДНИ КУЛТУРИ И НЕКОИ ПАРАЛЕЛИ СО ЕВРОПСКИТЕ КУЛТУРИ

SUMMARY: THE “SPINNING” AND SPINNERS OF BALKAN FOLK CULTURES AND SOME PARALLELS WITH EUROPEAN CULTURES

  • Весна Петреска Институт за фолклор „Марко Цепенков“ УКИМ - Скопје
Keywords: spinning, mythical female beings, folk calendar, wool, spindle, staple., предење, женски митолошки суштества, народен календар, волна, вретено, влакно, spinning, mythical female beings, folk calendar, wool, spindle, staple

Abstract

Во трудот се разгледува мотивот „предење“ во различни сфери од балканските народни култури, но се прават и обиди според достапните податоци, тој да се согледа и во европските култури. Предењето на кое се надоврзува волната, текстилот, ткаењето, конецот, влакното, се разгледува во семејниот циклус, но и во годишниот циклус обичаи. Врз основа на анализирање на мотивот предење кога тој се појавува, како и различните забрани сврзани со предењето, кои се појавуваат главно во календарот, и казните кон прекршителите, главно од митолошки женски суштества, применувајќи ја претежно симболичката анализа ќе се настојува да се покаже дека овој мотив е доста распространет во (преодни) пресвртливи периоди и е сврзан со плодоносниот принцип.

 

SUMMARY

In the Balkan folk cultures, the motive of “spinning” is connected to the fertility, the marital symbolism, and the rites of passage as well. The passage is represented at the individual level, in the life-cycle customs and the passage from one state to another. This particularly is evident in the birth rites, when on the third night of the child’s birth his/her’s fate is being predicted. The child’s fate was determined by the fairies that “spun the thread of life”. Also, the healing customs can be attached to the motive of the spinning of the thread, since the spinning motive was present in the incantations, while tying laces of the ill person in a certain areas or plants that corresponded to the other world.
The spinning that is related to the passing to a new phase is noticeable also in the girl’s apprentices’ household chores – spinning, weaving, knitting and embroidery. This is connected to the initiation rites, when girls were separated in a specially prepared places “kukjarici”, where they “mastered” these activities. The spinning motive is related with the passage from one to another time period in the calendar. This indicates prohibitions of women’s household chores that are particularly prevalent during the period of the unbaptized days 7. 01-18. 01 (new calendar), “Trifunova sestra” (“St. Trifun’s sister”), or “Ovcha Bogorodica” (“Mother’s sheep of God”) – 15. 02 (new calendar), Mid-lent week, the period so called “between two Mothers of God” -28.08-21.09 (new calendar), the period from “Mittrovden” (St. Dimitri’s day) to the “Arangjelovden” (St. Michael the Archangel) (21. 11) and on “Martintsi” (Holiday of the Wolves) – 8.11.-21.11-24.11. The prohibition of spinning is evident in the following time passages and complexes in the Macedonian traditional calendar: the period of the unbaptized days until the next holiday “Tripunova sestra “ (“St. Trifun’s sister”) or “Ovcha Bogorodica “ (“Mother’s cheep of God”) that represents the transition into the early spring ritual complex, on Mid-lent week the transition is noticeable from the spring to the summer ritual complex, the period around “Between two Mother’s of God” can be seen as a transition to the autumn ritual complex, while St. Dimitri’s day and the following holidays are transition to the winter ritual complex.

Published
2018-12-29
Section
ARTICLES / ПРИЛОЗИ