ИСТОЧНИ И ЗАПАДНИ ВЛИЈАНИЈА ВРЗ СТАНБЕНАТА АРХИТЕКТУРА ВО РИМСКИОТ ПЕРИОД ВО РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА
SUMMARY: THE EASTER AND WESTERN INFLUENCES ON THE RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE ROMAN PERIOD IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Станбената архитектура во текот на долгиот временски период од својот развиток, минала низ повеќе фази. Фазите биле проследени со трансформација на одделни простории и на целокупната форма на објектите. Нејзината улога и значењето што таа го имала во животот на човекот, исто така била подложна на влијанијата што ги ширеле различните култури. Во Римскиот период станбената архитектура била тесно поврзана со општеството и таа на свој начин го симболизирала општествениот систем.
Текстот има за цел да ги издвои влијанијата, врз римската станбена архитектура, што доаѓале од источните и западните медитерански простори. Истражувањата се засновани врз основа на пишаните извори и археолошките остатоци, откриени на тлото на Република Македонија. За да се дојде до поверодостојни сознанија беше неизбежна компарацијата со наодите во другите простори што, исто така гравитираат кон Медитеранскиот басен.
During the course of time dwellings and household had undergone many phases, transforming their appearance and accepting many roles and meanings. In the Roman period the house had strong relations with the local community and the society in general.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the influences from the East and West in the architectural form of the residential buildings in the Roman period. For that purpose were used information provided by written sources and the remains of the residential buildings found on the archaeological sites. Analysis and the interpretations of dwellings refer to the remains in the region of the Republic of Macedonia.
Due to geographic and climatic factors, the region of the Republic of Macedonia was constantly exposed to the influences which came from the wide Mediterranean area. It is therefore necessary comparing the archaeological findings from Macedonia with those in the broad Mediterranean region. The archaeological site where the largest number of housing facilities was unearthed is Stobi. Most of them belonged to the aristocracy, and due to the quality of their buildings they survived the ravages of time.
Consequently, the Roman influence on the concept of the house was felt only for a short period of time during the Early Roman period, while the Hellenistic tradition continued in the periods to come. A central peristyle characterizes the residences at Stobi, such as the Late Roman House of Parthenius, the House of Polycharmos, the House of Peristerias, the House of GR and the so-called Episcopal Residence. Smaller housing complexes intended for the intimate family were found in the most residences at Stobi. Very often in the central part of dining rooms were adorned octagonal piscine-fountains. It is evident that all these elements of the Hellenistic houses were adjusted to the Roman lifestyle and the Roman common sense, thus blending with the elements of the Roman house. The architectural decorative elements such as embossed columns and capitals have also eastern roots.
The main chambers in the residences in Stobi are the apsidal rooms, used as oeci, burgeoning vegetation in the peristyles and richly decorated fountains. The residences erected in parts of the town or countryside with sufficient space, and water nearby incorporated bath complexes into them, supplied with hypocaust heating. The interior of these luxurious houses was decorated in stucco technique and they preserved decorated floors with beloved roman most impressive opus sectile.
The cultural influences were coming directly from the East and West or indirectly from the southern Roman provinces. It is obvious that the eastern influences are mostly present in the ground plans of the residences, while the constructive and decorative elements were influenced by western Roman architecture.