АРХЕОЛОШКИОТ ЛОКАЛИТЕТ „ДРМА“ - БАДЕР И ПРОБЛЕМОТ НА УБИКАЦИЈА НА БАДЕРИЈАНА
SUMMARY: ”DRMA” ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE-BADER AND THE QUESTION OF UBICATION OF BADERIJANA
The toponym of the village of Bader is a curiosity for scientist because of the link with the ancient city of Bederiana, the born city of the emperor Justin I, which is mentioned in the historiography of Procopius. That link is confirmed also by the several scientists from the middle of the 19th till the middle of the 20th century. Traces from the location of Drma near the village of Bader that was identified by prof. Ivan Mikulcić in the second half of the 20th century as Praesidium initiated the archaeological excavations in a way of definition of the building structures on this position.
With the excavations on the two Sectors, so far, that are on the distance around 40 m. building structures that indicate of the existence of roman villa has been found. According the archaeological material the chronological frame of the object was defined from the first till eight decade of the IV century.
Above mention facts on the site are in opposite with the supposed Bederiana i.e. Praesidium on the site of Drma, but further excavations of the site and vicinity of the village Bader can confirmed or reject in its entirety their ubication of this territory.
Having into consideration the positioning of the walls of the both areas that are researched, it is plausible to assume that these walls are part of one same building-speaking about southern research area SECTOR 2, Object 1 and the structures discovered in SECTOR 1.
Traces of three walls of 0.65 to 0.70 meters wide are discovered in SECTOR 2. One of them is actually an apse with an inner diameter of 2.50 meters on the western side. The materials used in this walls and the technique are rather of solid quality-limestone with sieved sand and particles of crashed stones and fragments of building ceramics such as bricks. During the excavation of the wall going south-east to north-west, it is visible that the previously mentioned technique and hydrostatic materials are laid on top of a brick floor.
In this same area two lines of sewage are discovered-one 4 meters long in direction south-west to north-east that is connected with the other which is 1.70 meters long, going south-east to north-west. Picture 8 represents the reconstructed sewage system according to these findings. The system on the floor is made of semi-circled bricks (tegulas) made in Corinthian style put next to one another to make a drain pipe. Over the edges of the tegulas, layers of bricks measuring 5 cm are put that make the walls of the canals. The covering/roof construction of the canals is made of pairs of bricks put on the little walls of the canals. This kind of construction enables making an inner opening of the canal measuring 25cm by 25cm.
Within this area, especially next to the most southern wall, in a layer of yellowish dirt/earth, we discovered 8 Roman bronze coins and one icon made of lead representing the so called cult of “Danube’s horsemen”.
Worth mentioning is the fact that in the northern part of SECTOR 2, between the walls numbered as 2 and 3, we discovered a layer of ruins composed only of bricks, one of which has a carved decoration: diagonally crossed straight lines.
At this point of the research of the excavations it is very hard to say with certainty that there is a connection between the excavated buildings in SECTOR 1 and SECTOR 2. Nevertheless, that possibility cannot be discarded as a whole because of the concept of villas (existing in this area from the beginning until the seventies of the 4th century) that is obvious. As long as the function of the excavated rooms within the buildings is concerned, we cannot be certain-except maybe Room 3, Object 1 in SECTOR 1 with three pilasters, fact that leads us to conclude that it was obviously used as a Horreum.
Furthermore, the existence of hydrostatic materials and the sewage system within the building of SEKTOR 2, gives a high level of certainty that this was probably a kind of a spa segment of the excavated complex.
Having all the archeological material from the 4th century before our eyes at the “Drma”-Bader excavation site, it cannot be define the ubiquity of the birth town of the emperor Justinian-place that according to the history data existed continuously until th6th century, known as Ba(e)derijana. Still, the fact that the existing name of Bader is very close to the Baderijana, from a linguistic point of view, stands.
The definite ubiquity of the place which is in the vicinity of the modern times village of Bader, will depend on the future archeological research and recognition within this micro-area, hopefully by excavating more building structures that will be additional material evidence going further than the 4th century which will define with certainty its existence during the late-antic until the early-Byzantine period. As an additional asset to this are the archeological researches made at the site called “Gradiste”, near the village of Taor, where some outer walls were discovered, some buildings together with some other archeological materials dated back from 4th to 6th century-rebuilt and renewed after the big earthquake in 518A.D. with a visible life and existence into the early and middle years of the middle age. All this and of course the found monogram of Justinian 1 carved on a pilaster, just confirm the statements of Prokopij concerning the ubiquity of Tauresium. Something that has to be done to confirm our statement is to compare the archeological data collected from the site at Bader with the history data of Prokopij about Baderijana.