РАЗВОЈНИОТ ПАТ НА ПРЕТСТАВИТЕ НА СВЕТИ МЕРКУРИЈ ПРЕКУ ПРИМЕРИТЕ ОД Р МАКЕДОНИЈА
SUMMARY: THE DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE OF ST. MERCURIUS’ REPRESENTATIONS THROUGH THE EXAMPLES FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Во овој труд се следи развојниот пат на претставите на св. Меркуриј, со посебен осврт и преку примерите од Р Македонија. Во однос на неговата физиономија св. Меркуриј нема сосема дефинирани и постојани особености. Неговата претстава минува низ неколку промени, од X до XII век, па преку поразличните прикази во протопалеоговскиот и палеологовскиот период, сè до потполното менување од/по средината на XIV век и особено во поствизантискиот период. Промените во иконографијата, всушност, ќе бидат доминантен поствизантиски модел на негово претставување во сликарството на подрачјето на Р Македонија.
St. Mercurius is one of the best known high ranking warrior saints who is often presented and who has already drawn a lot of scholarly attention. The data and sequences in various hagiographic sources are visually transmitted into depictions of the saint in standing position or on a horse while stabbing the enemy with a spear. Regarding the physiognomy, St. Mercurius does not have completely defined and permanent characteristics, and his figure goes through several changes that we trace from 10th to 12th century, and through the various depictions in the following centuries, especially in the examples from the Republic of Macedonia. Hence, for his earliest representation here, we consider the one from the western wall in the church of St. Panteleimon in Nerezi.
At the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century, the depictions of St. Mercurius obtain different typological and formal characteristics as evidenced by the examples from Holy Mother of God - Peribleptos in Ohrid and from Staro Nagorichane, where his depictions with helmet and sword in hand dominate. The following alteration of the iconography of the saint occur by changing its frontal figure into three-quarters depiction, with a helmet on his head, and bow and arrow in his hands, which he draws near to his eyes to assess whether it is straight. These changes are already noticeable in his depiction from the nave of the Lesnovo Monastery, and will be established in Konche Monastery.
Among scholars prevails the opinion that the “specific depiction” of St. Mercurius is due to Ottoman-Persian influences on the saints iconography detected and explained by the influence of the so-called warriors model present in Persian miniatures. The changes in his iconography, in fact, will be the dominant post-Byzantine model for representing St. Mercurius in the church painting, especially on the territory of R. of Macedonia. The earliest examples are noted in the works of the painters from the so-called Ohrid School dating from the middle of the 15th century. It is evident that St. Mercurius is also depicted in the same manner in the following centuries, and we can also trace the continuity of his depictions during the 18th and 19th century.