ДЕРВИШКИОТ РЕД БЕКТАШИ ВО МАКЕДОНИЈА : карактеристики и современа состојба

SUMMARY: THE BEKTASHI ORDER OF DERVISHES IN MACEDONIA characteristics and contemporary condition

  • Виктор Трајановски Институт за етнологија и антропологија ПМФ - УКИМ Скопје


Во овој труд се прикажани главните карактеристики на припадниците на дервишкиот ред бекташи, нивната појава, распространетост, но и нивната доктрина. Исто така, претставена е современата состојба на овој дервишки ред во Македонија, особено изнесени се проблемите со кои бекташкиот тарикат денес се соочува.



Based on the research conducted in certain places around the Republic of Macedonia, we have gained ethnographic material on which basis are presented and problematized just some of the many issues that ethnologists and anthropologists might be engaged in studying the Bektashi.
From the presented in this paper it could be concluded that the Bektashi dervish order is associated with the name of Hājī Baktāsh Walī, evliya, who lived in Anatolia in the second half of the 13th century, considered to be the founder and spiritual leader, or holy protector of the Bektashi tariqat according towhom, thistariqatbearsitsname.
As to the substance of Bektashi teachings, dogmas or fundamental points of religious teaching, the Bektashi tariqat offers unique and recognizable reading of the Quran; following the teachings and practices of the Prophet Muhammad and hazreti Ali; respect for the family of the Prophet Muhammad - “Ahl al-Bayṫ”, a tribute to the 12 imams and 14 flawless victims, so called the innocent (masum-i pak) children of the imams; then, belief in evliyas i.e. saints; following the holy way of Hājī Baktāsh Walī and the doctrine of the four gates which cannot be imagined without the character of the murshid or teacher who knows best the road leading to almighty Allah, or Hak, or the Truth.
Historical development of the Bektashi tariqat in Macedonia and across the region is associated with the rise of the Bektashi order from the beginning of 14th century and the activities of Balım Sultan.Among the earliestBektashitekkesin the RepublicofMacedoniaare the Hıdır-babaTekkeinMakedonskiBrod, which is considered to be the oldest Bektashi shrine in Macedonia, then the Harabati-Baba Tekke in Tetovo and Dikmen-Baba Tekke in Kanatlarci.
The Bektashis who live in the Republic of Macedonia today are often faced with certain problems that we can classify as external, those, such as the multi-decade animosity with the Islamic Religious Community in Macedonia, and internal,those that occur inside the community.